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Monthly Archives: September 2016

“Hunger may motivate us more than thirst, fear, or anxiety.” Like No ratings yet.

Human motivation has been studied for decades, primarily in an attempt to answer one question: what drives us to take one action over another? Researchers shed some light in a new study, after finding hunger is a stronger motivational force than thirst, fear, anxiety, and social needs.

Senior author Michael J. Krashes, of the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues recently published their findings in the journal Neuron.

Put simply, motivation is the reason for acting in a particular way or making a certain choice over another.

In the 1940s, American psychologist Abraham H. Maslow created the “hierarchy of needs” – a set of five “needs” that he believed explained human motivation.

These range from physiological needs – such as food, water, and other requirements for human survival – to self-actualization, the desire for personal growth and success.

Over the years, researchers have either acknowledged, criticized, or amplified Maslow’s theory. With regard to the latter, neurologists have increasingly investigated the role of the human brain in motivation.
Hungry and thirsty mice opted for food over water

According to Krashes and team, most neurological studies of motivation are conducted in tightly controlled conditions and have focused on investigating one motivational state at a time, which has made it difficult to determine if some states are stronger drivers than others and what brain circuits are involved.

With a view to addressing this knowledge gap, the researchers conducted a series of mouse experiments in which they assessed a variety of motivational states, including hunger, fear, anxiety, and social needs.

For the study, the team used optogenetics – a technique that uses light to control cells – to govern nerve cells in the brain known as agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons.

AgRP neurons are situated in the brain’s hypothalamus. They are known to regulate appetite and are crucial for survival.

For one experiment, the researchers either deprived mice of food for 24 hours or activated their AgRP neurons in order to make them hungry. These mice were also deprived of water, making them thirsty. A control group was deprived of water but not food.

(Share Info from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/313178.php)

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They say there are “66 Ways to Protect Your Privacy Right Now.” Like No ratings yet.

Ah, the joys of the connected life: opportunities to engage with global communities, be educated and entertained, and shop with ease. But these go hand in glove with intrusions from marketers and threats from criminals. The tips here, compiled with input from dozens of security experts, will help you take control. We also have pulled out a shorter list of just seven, super-fast steps you can take right now, in less than 10 minutes. And Julia Angwin, the author of “Dragnet Nation,” shares her quest for privacy and security in the digital age.

You can begin with either list or the essay—and you don’t have to follow every tip, or even most of them. The important thing? Just get started.

In a hurry? Check out the Consumer Reports 10-Minute Digital Privacy Tuneup.

Or you can skip straight to specific advice on: screen locks, snail mail privacy, unbreakable passwords, mobile account safety, connected devices, handling public WiFi, everyday encryption, Facebook settings, home WiFi settings, boosting web browser privacy, beating ransomware, how to avoid phishing schemes, and Google settings.

1. Check Your Data Breach Status
Wondering whether your personal data is for sale on the web? At haveibeenpwned.com you can check your email addresses and usernames against lists from 120 known breaches at com-panies including Adobe, LinkedIn, and Snapchat. (You’ll need to register to check the full database.) If your name pops up, change the password for the compromised account and any other site where—tut, tut—you were using the same password. (Bonus tip: Pros pronounce “pwned” as “poned,” not “pawned.”)

2. Stop WiFi Imposters
Laptops, smartphones, and other WiFi-enabled devices can automatically connect to familiar networks. That’s convenient—no one wants to enter a password for their home or work WiFi every day—but it can also be risky. A hacker can set up a rogue WiFi network with the same name as a legitimate one such as “Google Starbucks” or attwifi and trick your gadgets into joining it.

Periodically get a fresh start by using your devices’ network or WiFi settings to prune the networks you join automatically. Most devices let you delete networks one by one, but if you have an iPhone or iPad, you need to go to Reset Network settings under General settings and delete all of them at once.

(More info at: http://www.consumerreports.org/privacy/66-ways-to-protect-your-privacy-right-now/)

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